Combined palaeoenvironmental and archaeological studies of European high mountains are still rare. This integrated research aims to understand the long-term landscape shaping of the Madriu-Perafita-Claror valley (Andorra, Eastern Pyrenees), included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. A palaeoenvironmental study combining pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, and macrocharcoal was carried out in natural basins and results were integrated with archaeological on-site data. Distinct phases of local landscape variability are detected and related to the spatial organization of land-uses from the Neolithic to the Modern Era. This study underlines the role of social, economic and cultural parameters in the landscape shaping of European highlands since the Prehistory.