This work presents a study of the pre-Hispanic occupation at the site of Ñawinpukyo (Ayacucho, Peru) during the Early Intermediate Period (EIP) (ca. 200 BC – AD 600) and the Middle Horizon (MH) (ca. AD 600-1000). A local and diachronic perspective is adopted to examine the developmental trajectory of this community, in the context of the broader regional processes that took place in the valley during those periods. These processes brought about, especially during the MH, significant cultural changes not only in the Ayacucho Valley but in the whole central Andean area, with the rise of the powerful Wari society and culture. Earlier interpretations about the site and its role in Ayacucho prehistory are reevaluated in the light of the newly acquired information and the proposed interpretations. This study contributes to our current understanding of Ayacucho EIP and MH society by presenting new empirical information about the Huarpa and Wari cultures and describing the developmental trajectory of a particular local community. The specific patterns of human activities identified at the site and their changes over time illustrate from a local perspective the socio-cultural changes brought about by broader regional processes that took place in the valley duringthe EIP and the MH.