The study of astronomy in ancient societies is becoming ever more popular among archaeologists as is reflected in this collection of twelve papers been taken from a session held at the European Association of Archaeologists Eighth Annual Meeting held in Thessaloniki in 2002. It becomes clear that astronomy is considered as an important motivation for the construction of many monuments across the ancient world. Divided into three sections, the contributions discuss archaeological, and astronomical, evidence from ancient Egypt, prehistoric and Hellenic Europe and, in one paper only, Mesoamerica. In addition to examining specific monuments, sites and buildings, the papers discuss what these reveal about the cosmology and technical ability of a range of cultures. Supported throughout by astronomical diagrams.