This book, based on reviews of existing evidence and on original ethnographic and archaeological data, addresses the issue of when, how and why food production emerged in Ethiopia. This problem is examined through both cultural and economic context. The conclusion is that significant phases of development can be identified in Ethiopian Holocene prehistory. The suggestion is that the introduction of domesticated animals in Ethiopia occurred as early as the 6th millennium BP, and domesticated temperate crop plants were introduced from the 5th millennium BP. The book includes appendices featuring Ethiopian resources, pollen diagrams and archaeological evidence.