The 4th National Ethnoarchaeology Meeting was held in Rome from the 17th-19th of May 2006. The meeting principally focused on the formation of archaeological sites in their multiple aspects: domestic work, craft activities, the conduct of social and ritual activities that lead to the formation of sediment and debris object, which are typically involved in post-depositional processes of variable complexity. Also considered were those behaviors which, although clearly observable in living cultural environments, do not leave traces in the soil or on other materials and therefore are not recognized and diagnosed. This book presents forty papers from five of the sessions held at the meeting. The five sessions are: 1) Formative processes - production facilities. Working and processing of materials; 2) Formative processes - structures; 3) Formative processes - territorial strategies; 4) Formative processes - symbols and rituals; 5) Formative processes - urban realities.