The permanent system of coastal batteries of the Strait of Messina was erected in the late nineteenth century according to newly discovered plans of the defences of the Kingdom of Italy. Already conceptually obsolete during construction and progressively decommissioned, it was barely used for over half a century, and at the outbreak of World War II was replaced by a new defensive system. Today, it represents a significant and valuable example of Italian military architecture that has not yet been sufficiently analysed and documented.AUTHOR
Armando Donato served in the Italian army, before qualifying in Business Management and Economics & Tourism. He has collaborated with the Historical Office of the Italian Navy (Bulletin Archives), the Italian Army Military Review (online Magazine), the Italian Society of Military History and the Academy of St Marciano, Ancient Weapons.