Although the beginning of archaeological studies dates back to very old times, the use and applications of discAlines such as physics, chemistry, geology, and biology in archaeology have rapidly increased during the last sixty years worldwide. Papers that apply methods and techniques of the so-called hard sciences to solve diverse problems in Argentine archaeology have become more popular during the last two decades. These studies involve the particAation of professionals coming from several fields such as physics, chemistry, geology and biology, as well as archaeologists technically trained in those discAlines. Papers that apply this kind of approach can only be found as isolated contributions in Argentine archaeological meetings, symposia, and in non-specific publications, because there are no local technical journals such as those internationally available. For this reason we organized a Symposium at the XVII National Congress of Argentine Archaeology (October 2010, Mendoza, Argentina) seeking to offer a specialist-oriented arena to share new information and discuss methodological and technical issues regarding the application of physical, chemical, and biological tools in archaeology. This book includes some of the papers presented at that symposium, and partially illustrates the state of the art in the utilization of these analytical markers in Argentina. This book aims at presenting the local research to non-Spanish speaking audiences and at promoting a dialogue between archaeologists trained in chemical, earth and natural sciences who use these methods and techniques around the world.