The image of Cleopatra VII Philopator, often a cause of controversy and debate, has long been of particular interest among collectors of classical antiquities and academics. Starting from the controversial identification of the Capitoline Cleopatra and critical reading of the iconographic and literary documentation available, the author discusses iconographic and methodological issues and offers new interpretations and identifications of royal female statuary in Egyptian style. This volume offers a wide panorama of the Lagid figurative culture (Egyptian and Greek) and includes a catalogue of the monuments. The author's Egyptological and semiotic analysis of the sardonyx agate phiale, better known as the Farnese Cup, reveals what may be considered the most evident and effective result of the concept of bilingual expression through iconography. The historical, cultural, political and religious aspects of the Ptolemaic dynasty are discussed, and special attention is given to the religious politics of the Lagid sovereigns in Egyptian territory and particularly to the deification of the Ptolemaic queens.