This study deals with Roman imperialism and the stand made by some conquered peoples in the face of Roman expansion, as exemplified by that of the Arab Nabataeans (modern Jordan) who lost their autonomy at the hands of the Romans in 106 CE. The study is divided into six chapters. The first is concerned with the development of the idea of history (historiography). The second chapter looks specifically at the case of the Nabataeans. Imperial discourse is the subject of the third chapter. Here, the theory of post-colonialism is introduced. Three sections are dealt with under this chapter. First is the understanding of classical sources of Roman imperialism. The second section in this chapter is concerned with the genesis of the idea of the other in the Greco-Roman mentality. Within this context, the third section of this chapter looks at the image of the Nabataeans as others in the accounts of Strabo, Josephus, and Diodorus. Chapter four is concerned with the the annexation of Nabataea, looking at the events of 106 CE within the context of Roman imperialism. The fifth chapter looks at the Nabataean resistance to the Romans both militarily and culturally. The last chapter introduces a fresh approach to the annexation of Nabataean territory.