The settlement of Ilgynly-depe is situated in the foothills of the Kopet Dag mountains approximately 240 km due south-east of Ashgabat and 110 km north-west of Meshkhed, southern Turkmenistan. The settlement was founded in the late 5th and early 4th millennium BC. The subject of this study was the collection of anthropomorphic figurines found within the confines of the Ilgynly-depe settlement. The assemblage of over 500 distinctive figurines was gathered in the course of 14 excavation seasons. This is the first time the collection has been published in depth. The accompanying CD shows each figurine in colour.