This book assesses the patterns of morphological variation in Late Holocene human populations of Pampa and Continental Patagonia in southern South America, using postcranial skeletons to discuss the evolutionary processes that shaped those patterns. It represents the first regionally and temporally delimited survey of postcranial variation during the Late Holocene in this part of South America. The region concerned is the last continental fringe populated by modern humans. It is moderate in terms of temperature variation compared with other parts of the World. Considering the particular characteristics of the study area, the data and the results obtained are significant to describe the patterns and processes of postcranial metric variation, as well as tounderstand the complexity of the postcranial diversification processes in modern humans.