This book joins a long series of studies conducted in recent years at the Department for Land of Israel Studies at Bar-Ilan University in the Unit for the History of Medicine in Ancient Times. Since the field of study is extensive, the special focus of this treatise is the study of medicine in Greater Jerusalem, but it may serve as a faithful reflection of the nature of medicine and the changes it underwent throughout Israel and Syria in ancient times. The study is based primarily on historical sources. The first part of the book consists of a short history of medicine in Jerusalem from various historical aspects, followed by an evaluation of the physicians, their status, professional training, etc. The second part presents a list of physicians who were active in Jerusalem between the 10th-18th centuries.