Within the background of modern human origins debate, this book tempts to improve the knowledge of variation in cranial shape and size among later Pleistocene hominids from Europe, The Near East and Africa. The main fossil sample includes crania assignedto archaic Homo sapiens, 'classic' Neandertals and Preneandertals as well as anatomically modern Homo sapiens from the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic. Also included were two Asian Homo erectus. A basic photogrammetric setup has been used to ascertain raw data acquisition. The results reveal that size varies both with regard to sex and geographic origin.