The field of Islamic archaeology in Morocco has grown substantially during the last two decades. The establishment of the Institut National des Sciences de lArchéologie et du Patrimoine (INSAP) in Rabat, and its collaboration with archaeological teams from different parts of the world infused the field with new ideas and energy. This monograph is a result of such collaboration. This book builds on the results of recent archaeological investigations in northern Morocco. Archaeological research in northern Morocco was designed to test ideas about state formation and urban growth during the Islamic period. Based on the Boone et al. model, this study examines the material impact of changing political economies on settlement systems in northern Morocco from the ninth to the fifteenth centuries A.D.