This volume brings together several papers delivered in different sessions that, for various reasons, were not completely published. Four major themes are involved: cultural interactions, rock art, theory and heritage. Papers by A. Meza and F. Vergara discuss intercultural issues in archaeological and ethnoarchaeological contexts. The paper by Albuquerque and Almeida on cognitive archaeology opens a sequence of five papers dedicated to rock art issues, including pigments studies (Gomes, Rosina and SanA), landscape analysis (Oliveira and Oliveira; Basille and Ratto) and methodology (G. Muñoz). The relations between New Archaeology and modern Russian research are the focus of discussion by I. Shucteleva. Urban and modern archaeology in the context of heritage management of contact are discussed in the papers by D. Costa, F. Borba and D. Bandeira, D. Pereiosta and R. Godoy.