Volume 57 in the Cambridge Monographs in African Archaeology focuses on the problems of chronological interpretation of two faciès from the North African EpAalaeolithic: Typical and Upper Capsian. Originally defined as two evolutionary phases, they are considered as contemporary following the development of the radiometric method in the 1950s. The author tackles the question of evolution or contemporaneousness from a systematic revision of cultural attribution, stratigraphy, and particularly the radiocarbon dates. Evidence is presented at the micro level from a new look at the lithic technology from the assemblages of Bortal Fakher, El-Mekta, Relilaï, and Aïn Dokkara, before widening to include the whole Capsian region for a global comparison of cultural attribution, chronology and lithic technology. By integrating what is known of the Capsian, from previous researches and these new results, the author proposes an evolutionary model that emphasizes the development of the Capsian until the Neolithic inthe Maghreb. 243 figures, maps, plans, tables, drawings, illustrations; English abstract.