The first part of the book analyses the most recent studies on Romanisation. It focuses on the settlement systems and on the definition that can be given to different built-up areas. Comparing various modern research fields, including settlement geography and specific studies in antiquity such as historical, epigraphic and archaeological sources, this research aims to elaborate a valid model for the Roman Period that could be used, more specifically, in the Salento area. Three different settlement categories have been identified and divided at an internal level into different typologies of built-up areas. At an interpretative level, it has been demonstrated that such settlements could be related to ancient terminology. This research enables a diachronic reading of the settlement system. In addition, it offers an interpretation of the typologies of the different built-up areas in the Salento during the different phases in which the Roman age has been divided. In Appendix can be found the census of all sites of Roman Age in the Salento between the end of the 3rd century B.C. and the 6th century AD. This census has led to the realization of a catalogue of over 300 records of settlements.