This work is a case study focusing on the long-term unique evolutionary trajectory of the prehistoric Liaoxi area, Northeast China. The emergence and dramatic decline of the Hongshan complex societies forms the core of this interpretation. Research on household and community levels are based previously excavated typical sites. The basic data for the spatial study at the regional level comes from the authors survey in the Lower Bang River and Upper Laohushan River valleys, Aohan Banner, Inner Mongolia. The structure of the work follows the chronology of the prehistoric cultures in Liaoxi.